Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Marine Drugs & Natural Products London, UK.

Day 2 :

Keynote Forum

Anant Achary

Kamaraj College of Engineering and Technology, India

Keynote: Cytotoxic and antioxidant properties of Phlorotannin and fucoxanthin from Sargassum tenerrimum
Natural Products 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Anant Achary photo
Biography:

Anant Achary completed his M.Tech. and Ph.D in Biotechnolog at Anna University, India, Currently he is working at Kamaraj College of Engineering and Technology has a Principal and Professor .Anant Achary has expertise in working on algae from marine environment found abundantly in Indian Coast, more specifically on algae present in Gulf of Mannar, Mandapam Coast, India. He is among the top five scientists pursuing research on native algae. His interest lies in exploring the brown algae as natural alternative for existing heparin like anticoagulants. His research is focused on understanding the nutraceutical potential of brown algae and as adjunct therapy for cancer patients. A study on native species for their diverse biological potential also has commercial value and as a part of his research interests, his group has attempted to enhance their biological potential with biological modifications of existing secondary metabolites from marine algae.

Abstract:

hlorotannin and fucoxanthin from brown algae exhibit various beneficial biological activities. Sargassum tenerrimum  , marine brown algae were collected from Gulf of Mannar, Mandapam Island, India. Solvent extraction of phlorotannin and fucoxanthin from S. tenerrimumwas was carried out using chloroform: methanol: water in the ratio 4:2:1. The presence of phenol and fucoxanthin in extracts were analyzed qualitatively by phytochemical screening and confirmed by FTIR analysis.  Ferrous Reducing Antioxidant power (FRAP) of crude phlorotannin and fucoxanthin shows  reducing power of 0.098 ± 0.095 and  0.00216 ± 0.00 (g of ferrous sulphate equivalent/g of sample ). The IC50 values for DPPH radical scavenging activity of phlorotannin was found to be 820.2 ± 36.7 and  for fucoxanthin was found to be 726.75 ± 42.1 (µg/ml). Total antioxidant activity of crude phlorotannin and fucoxanthin was found to be 0.12 ± 0.002, 0.56 ± 0.028 g/of ascorbic acid equivalent/ g of sample), respectively.The results of total antioxidant power (TAP) assay, Ferrous Reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and DPPH radical scavenging activity suggested that crude phlorotannin and fucoxanthinare had appreciable antioxidant activity. The cell proliferation assay using prostate cancer cell lines (PC3) showed that the IC50 value for phlorotannin and fucoxanthin was found to be 58±3.2 µg/mL and 60±2.8 (µg/mL) and the cytotoxicity is dose dependent. The phase contrast microscopic image of the phlorotannin and fucoxanthin treated PC3 cell lines showed shrinkage and other morphological abnormalities. The PC3 cells exhibited cellular DNA fragmentation when treated with  the extracted phlorotannin and fucoxnthin and the DNA fragmentation pattern was found to be similar  in the treated cells. Western blotting analysis revealed that phlorotannin and fucoxanthin suppressed the expression of BCL-2 (antiapoptotic protein) and enhanced the expression of Bax (proapoptotic protein)  with β-actin as a control in treated and control PC3 cells. The present study suggests that phlorotannin and fucoxanthin from marine brown algae could be explored as potential chemotherapeutic agents for anticancer therapy

Natural Products 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Sunmin Park photo
Biography:

Sunmin Park is a Full Professor of Nutrition at the Korean Academy of Science and Technology. She has expertise in the study of diabetes with an emphasis on the etiology of Asian Type 2 Diabetes. Type 2 diabetes involves various organs of the body, and much of her recent research has focused on the modulation of insulin signaling in the brain and liver. Recent studies have shown that the gut microbiome also plays an important role in various diseases, including diabetes. However, the mechanism of gut microbiota changes by diets and disease status remains elusive, so she is interested in studying the interactive effects of disease states, diet, and gut microbiota

Abstract:

Metabolic diseases such as diabetes, hypertention, dyslipidemia, obesity, stroke, retinopathy, myocardial infarction and neurodegeneration are interrelated with increased insulin resistance by attenuated insulin signaling in different tissues. Type 2 diabetes occurs when β-cell dysfunction develops simultaneously and as a consequence of insulin resistance increasing in the liver and skeletal muscles. Since Asians have lower insulin secretion capacity and β-cell mass, their susceptibility to develop type 2 diabetes is higher than in Caucasians. There is some evidence that hepatic insulin resistance is connected to brain insulin resistance, especially, in the hypothalamus. In addition, β-amyloid accumulation in the hippocampus results in cognitive dysfunction and exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance and glucose metabolism. Traditional Korean dietary and lifestyle patterns have contributed to a low incidence of insulin resistance and diabetes in the past. However, the westernization of the modern Korean lifestyle has increased the incidence of insulin resistance that cannot be compensated for by increased insulin output due to low β-cell function.

Korean fermented foods have enhanced bioactivitities over the original foods. For example, soybeans contain various phytoestrogens that improve energy, glucose and bone metabolism. However, their bioavailability is low. Fermentation changes the structure of phytoestrogens to form isoflavonoid aglycones, DDMP soyasaponin βg, E soyasaponin Be and lysoposphatidylcholines. These fermentation products are absorbed better in the gut and exhibit enhanced functionality for metabolism.  Bioactivities of fermented foods are modified by the major microorganisms that ferment them. Soybeans are traditionally fermented with Bacillus licheniformis (chungkookjang) and Aspergillus oryzae (meju), without added salt, improve insulin sensitivity and insulinotropic actions better than unfermented soybeans in non-obese type 2 diabetic rats fed high fat diets. This improvement is associated with potentiating insulin signaling in the liver and pancreatic islets. Chungkookjang made with Bacillus licheniformis decreases the accumulation of β-amyloid deposits in rats with β-amyloid (25-35) infusion into the CA1 region. Therefore, traditional Korean fermentation of soybean foods improves their bioactivities for alleviating metabolic diseases, especially type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. 

Keynote Forum

Gaurisankar Sa

Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, India

Keynote: Calcarea carbonica induces apoptosis in cancer cells in a p53-dependent manner via an immuno-modulatory circuit

Time : 11:15am

Natural Products 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Gaurisankar Sa photo
Biography:

Gaurisankar Sa completed his PhD at University of Calcutta, India, Currently he is working at the Division of Molecular Medicine as a Senior Professor, He has been a Post-doctoral Fellow, at Cleveland Clinic, USA from 1992-2012. He has published more than 55 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Abstract

Homeopathic remedies are reported to have healing potential for various diseases including cancer although the mechanism underneath their anticancer effect has remained unexplored. To this end we attempted to evaluate the anti-cancer effects of the homeopathic remedy, Calcarea carbonica and simultaneously investigated the detail molecular mechanism underlying this drug-induced tumor regression.

Results

Interestingly, although Calcarea carbonica administration to Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma (EAC)- and Sarcoma-180 (S180)-bearing Swiss albino mice resulted in 30-35% tumor cell apoptosis, it failed to induce any significant cell death in ex vivo conditions. These results prompted us to examine whether Calcarea carbonica employs the immuno-modulatory circuit in asserting its anti-tumor effects. In tumor-bearing mice, there was profound depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in peripheral blood, the dominance of type-2 T helper cells and inhibition of T cell proliferation. Calcarea carbonica, in turn, prevented such loss of effector T cell repertoire, reversed type-2 cytokine bias and attenuated tumor-induced inhibition of T cell proliferation in tumor-bearing host. To confirm the role of immune system in Calcarea carbonica-induced cancer cell death, a battery of cancer cells were co-cultured with Calcarea carbonica-primed T cells. Our results indicated a "two-step" mechanism of the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells by Calcarea carbonica, i.e., (1) activation of the immune system of the host; and (2) induction of cancer cell apoptosis via an immunomodulatory circuit in a p53-dependent manner by down-regulating Bcl-2: Bax ratio. Bax up-regulation resulted in mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss and cytochrome c release followed by activation of caspase cascade. Knocking out of p53 by RNA-interference inhibited Calcarea carbonica-induced apoptosis thereby confirming the contribution of p53.

Conclusion

These observations delineate the significance of immuno-modulatory circuit during Calcarea carbonica-mediated tumor apoptosis. The molecular mechanism identified may serve as a platform for involving homeopathic inclusions into immunotherapeutic strategies for effective tumor regression. 

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Location: Holiday Inn London Brentford Lock Commerce
Speaker
Biography:

Puongtip Kunanusorn, PhD, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. She has done her PhD from Chiang Mai University. She has published about 12 papers in many journals and has been serving as a reviewer of many well-known journals. Her research fields include pharmacological activities of medicinal plants, especially, anti-ulcer, analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities as well as toxicological studies (acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies).

 

Abstract:

Zingiber simaoense Y.Y.Qian is a member in the Zingiberaceae family.
In Thai traditional medicine, its rhizome has been used to relieve gastric disorders. The gastroprotective activity of Z. simaoense rhizome ethanol extract (ZSE) in experimental models in rats and some possible mechanisms to preserve gastric wall mucus have been reported. The aims of the present study were to find out the gastric healing activity of ZSE using acidified ethanol induced gastric ulcer model in rats, and to investigate more about the possible mechanisms of its gastroprotection using the methods of pretreatment with an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; L-NAME) and a sulfhydryl (SH) compound blocker (N-ethylmaleimide; NEM) in rats. The results showed that ZSE at the dose of 240 mg/kg could accelerate the gastric ulcer healing when observed on day 4 and 8, after ulcer induction. Pretreatment with L-NAME or NEM could inhibit gastroprotective activity of ZSE. In conclusion, the present study shows the gastric healing activity of ZSE, and the possible mechanisms of gastroprotection of ZSE may also involve its cytoprotective effect through gastric mucosal NO and SH compounds.

Speaker
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Abstract:

Traditional African Medicine (TAM) is one of the oldest and perhaps the most diverse of all medicine systems with different healing practices. Despite the growing attention given to traditional medicine (TM) worldwide, there is no well-known, publicly available, integrated bio-pharmacological TAM database for researchers in drug discovery. It is hypothesized that TAM database would offer comprehensive information relating to TAM-associated drugs, disease symptom, and protein relationships. TAM database will form an outline to accelerate novel drug discovery of many diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, sickle-cell anemia, diabetes, hypertension and mental disorders. TAM database is a platform to build up a bio-pharmacological TAM network to explore the potential active compounds, functional mechanisms and its targets for drug discovery. The idea to develop TAM database tools is unconventional because it will accelerate the development of new therapy for many tropical diseases by reducing the time consumed, money spent, and toxicity occurrence which are the causes of hurdles in drug development.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Khetbadei L H Hadem has completed her PhD in Biochemistry from North Eastern Hill University, India. She is currently working as a Post-doctoral Fellow under the UGC-PDF scheme in the Division of Animal Health, Indian Council of Agricultural Research for North Eastern Hill Region, Meghalaya, India. She has attended workshops and has presented papers in seminars and conferences. Her technical expertise includes maintenance and ethical handling of laboratory animals and cell cultures, enzymology, molecular biology, microscopy, standard chromatography procedures, and working with modern advanced scientific instruments. Her current work involves chromatographic profiling and characterization of plant active compounds and assessing the anticancer properties in human cancer cell lines through gene expression and protein expression analysis.

 

Abstract:


Traditional healthcare system is widely practiced in rural areas of India. Aristolochia tagala is one among the plants used by several traditional practitioners in different herbal preparations for treatment of cancer and other pathophysiological conditions. Our previous studies have reported the chemo-preventive potential of crude aqueous-methanol extract of A. tagala against DEN-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in BALB/c mice. The identification of biologically active compounds can give an insight into the mechanism of action of A. tagala as a potential anticancer drug. In this study, the crude methanol extract of A. tagala was fractionated by column chromatography. The fractions were further validated for their antioxidant property by their ability to scavenge free radicals such as superoxide, nitric oxide and ABTS radical cation. The preliminary cytotoxic effect of the plant as well as the fractions against cancerous cells was carried in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells by colorimetric MTT metabolic activity assay. The fraction with λ max 323, 290, 258 nm showed the highest scavenging activity. The fraction also showed a more efficient cytotoxic effect against HeLa cells. The 50% inhibition of proliferation by the fractionated compounds was at lower dose compared to crude extract. Flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle and apoptotic events induced by fractions and crude extract is being carried out. Purification and characterization of above fraction with anticancer compounds are underway. 

Speaker
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Abstract:

The adverse side-effects associated with chemotherapy during cancer treatment have shifted considerable focus towards therapies that are targeted but devoid of toxic side-effects. In the present study, the antitumorigenic activity of thuja, the bioactive derivative of the medicinal plant Thuja occidentalis, was evaluated, and the molecular mechanisms underlying thuja-induced apoptosis of functional p53-expressing mammary epithelial carcinoma cells were elucidated. Our results showed that thuja successfully induced apoptosis in functional p53-expressing mammary epithelial carcinoma cells. Abrogation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), prevention of p53-activation, knockdown of p53 or inhibition of its functional activity significantly abridged ROS generation. Notably, under these conditions, thuja-induced breast cancer cell apoptosis was reduced, thereby validating the existence of an ROS-p53 feedback loop. Elucidating this feedback loop revealed bi-phasic ROS generation as a key mediator of thuja-induced apoptosis. Thuja-induced generation of ROS at the first phase was instrumental in ensuring activation of p53 via p38MAPK and its nuclear translocation for transactivation of Bax, which induced a second phase of mitochondrial ROS to construct the ROS-p53 feedback loop. Such molecular crosstalk induced mitochondrial changes i) to maintain and amplify the thuja signal in a positive self-regulatory feedback manner; and ii) to promote the mitochondrial death cascade through cytochrome c release and caspase-driven apoptosis. These results open the horizon for developing a targeted therapy by modulating the redox status of functional p53-expressing mammary epithelial carcinoma cells by thuja.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Oluwakemi Osunderu has her expertise in evaluation medicinal products and passion in improving the health and wellbeing. Her evaluation model based on responsive constructivists creates new pathways for improving healthcare. She has built this model after years of experience in research, evaluation, teaching and administration both ion the field and education institutions. The FEDCAM is an Agency of the Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria

Abstract:

Medicinal plants are used to address the twin problems of promoting sustainable livelihoods and treatment of numerous illnesses in Nigeria. The study examined the medicinal value of forest products in the treatment of cancer in South-west Nigeria. Primary data was obtained in a cross section survey of 327 respondents comprising 127 Traditional Medicine Practitioners (TMPs), 100 Orthodox Medicine Practitioners (OMPs) and 100 respondents from the General Public drawn by multistage sampling technique from the study area. Interview schedule was used in collection of data on the effectiveness of forest products in cancer treatment. Economic tools of Gini coefficient and budgetary analysis were equally used in the analysis to show income inequality in the market and profit making by TMPs. The contribution of forest products to health care in terms of cancer treatment was evaluated through income, profit and production cost. The result showed that seven species were identified belonging to seven different families; Rutaceae, Asteraceae, Anarcardiaceae, Annonaceae, Meliaceae, Guttiferaceae and Leguminaceae topped the TMPs priority list. Result of economic analysis shows minimal competition in the anti-cancer forest product market and a high level of monopoly with a Gini coefficient of 0.83. The rate of return on investment was 180 .08% indicating that the TMPs were making profit. Five of the plants were tested against cancer cell lines MCF7 and Hs578T while Doxorubicin (a synthetic anticancer drug) was used as the control treatment. Three plants; Saccharum offinarum (Stem), Sucurinega virosa (Root) and Piper guineensii (Seed) produced no result; Garcinia kola (Bark) did not exhibit any anticancer effect even at a concentration of 10u1/m1 while only one plant species was effective against the cancer cell line at 1u1/m1. It is therefore concluded that forest products are effective in treatment of cancer.

Speaker
Biography:

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Abstract:

 

Objective: Research was conducted to find out the cytoprotective role of T. officinale against the injuries of the tissues induced by carbon tetrachloride.

 

Material & Methods: Different fractions of the plant were used in vitro and in vivo biological assays. Furthermore, in order to evaluate anti-tumor activity, experimental animals were grouped into 10 batches of 12 male rats in each group. Control group (Group 1), normal water and food were given; and Group II were subjected to dose of chemicals used as a vehicle drugs. Group III all rats of this group (n-12) were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (8 mL/kg of rat b.w.) mixed with olive oil in proportion of 0.5:4.5 once a week for 18 weeks.  All rats of this group (Group IV) were treated with 50 mg/kg b.w. of rutin (50 mg of rutin in 4 mL of DMSO) as positive control (reference drug) (Group V) were treated by CCl4 (8 mL/kg of animal b.w.) dissolved with olive oil in proportion of 0.5:4.5. After 48 hours, the methanol plant extract and n-hexane extract dissolved in DMSO was given orally once a week for 18 weeks with proportional increase of 50 mg, 100 mg and 200 mg for (Group V), (Group VI), (Group VII), (Group VIII) and for (GroupIX ), (Group X) only plant extracts in methanol and n-hexane.

 

Results: Histopathological and biochemical study is also evident for the protective effects of T. officinale. CCl4 group showed the severe damages to the tissues and tumor related changes whereas, at the same time, the leaf extracts of T. officinale in methanol and n-hexane prevent the tissue injuries and maintain the normal histological features of the tissue. Biochemical study also reflected the same preventive effects of T. officinale extracts. The protein level was increased, while the activity of CAT, POD and SOD was decreased in the CCl4 group as related to control and T. officinale extracts ingested groups.

 

Valrielyan Saio

Indian Council of Agricultural Research for North Eastern Hill Region, India

Title: Apoptotic induction and cell cycle arrest of Rhododendron arboreum extract in HeLa cervical cancer cells
Speaker
Biography:

V Saio has completed her PhD in Biochemistry from the North Eastern Hill University, India. She is presently working as a Young Professional-II in the Division of Animal Health, Indian Council of Agricultural Research for North Eastern Hill Region, Meghalaya, India. She has attended and presented papers in seminars, published four papers in national and international journals. She has strong domain knowledge with experiences in a wide range of laboratory techniques including enzymology, molecular biology, bioassay development, cell culture and handling of modern advanced scientific instruments. Her current work involves bioassay study of medicinal plants of North Eastern region of India in relation to their cytotoxicity, antimicrobial properties, antiviral properties, anticancer properties and subsequent chemical analysis of the plants to isolate and identify active principles

Abstract:

Rhododendron arboreum, traditionally used as a folk remedy by the people of North-East India was investigated for its effects on apoptotic induction and cell cycle arrest in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. Study of the gene expression of proteins involved in apoptosis and cell cycle regulation was carried out using real time PCR technique. MTT assay was used to evaluate cell viability and cytotoxic effect of aqueous-methanol extract of R. arboreum was determined. Treatment with the plant extract showed distribution of cells between late apoptotic and necrotic phases and caused cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. R. arboreum extract up-regulated the gene expression of caspase 8, caspase 9, caspase 3, p53 and p21, thus indicating a switching on of both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways resulting in DNA damage which in-turn up-regulated p53. There was significant down-regulation in the gene expression of G0/G1 phase-related proteins CDK 1, cyclin B1, CDK 4 and cyclin D1 in comparison to untreated HeLa cells, inferring an inhibitory action of the plant extract on the cyclin dependent kinases and activation of cell cycle check-points. Results demonstrated that R. arboreum could be a potential anti-cancer agent by its mechanism of inducing apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells.

Speaker
Biography:

Muyiwa Arisekola is a Student Researcher. He finished his Bachelor of Technology degree in Pure and Applied Chemistry. His vision is to parlay his passion for Organic Chemistry into a career in Natural Products Chemistry with a view to drastically minimizing the side effects associated with the use of drugs in the management of diseases.

 

Abstract:

Anti-inflammatory activity of the volatile oil of Raphia australis pulp: This is a measure of the ability of the volatile oil of Raphia australis to inhibit inflammation and thus be used in the management of inflammatory disorders. Inflammation is the immune response of the body to thermal, mechanical, microbial or chemical injury. The volatile oil of Raphia australis was extracted in hexane using Clevenger apparatus, after which the GC-MS analysis of the oil was carried out. The anti-inflammatory test was done using four groups (1, 2, 3, and 4) of rats comprising six rats per group. Group one were administered normal saline (0.09% v/v NaCl) while group1, 2 and 3 were administered 40 mg/kg (volatile oil), 80 mg/kg(volatile oil) and 100 mg/kg aspirin, respectively. Inflammation was induced in all the groups using lipopolysaccharide thirty minutes after treatment by gavage. The major constituents obtained from the GC-MS analysis of the volatile oil are: n-hexadecanoic acid (34.0%), tetradecanoic acid (9.5%), terpinolone (9.1%), dodecanoic acid (9.6%), hotrienol (8.8%), alpha-terpine-1,4-diene ( 8.0%), trans-benzalacetone (8.2%), lauric acid (9.6%). It can be concluded that the 80 mg/kg dose of the oil showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect (P<0.01) when compared to 100 mg/kg of aspirin (P<0.01). The analgesic activities of aspirin (P<0.05) and the 80 mg/kg dose (P<0.05) of the oil were only significant in the inflammatory phase of the analgesic test. This work, therefore, justifies the use of hexadecanoic acid- rich oil in the management of arthritis in Indian Ayurvedic traditional medicine.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Omer Abdalla Ahmed Hamdi has completed his PhD from the University Malaya, Malaysia. He is the Director of Center of Natural Product Research and Drug Discovery. He has published more than 12 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as Supervisor for more than ten students for master and PhD program. His research interests are: Isolation, structure elucidation of bioactive natural products compounds by spectroscopic techniques NMR, IR, UV, MS, and CD from medicinal plants with emphasis on anticancer, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, neuroprotective and anti-microbial activity.

Abstract:

 

Phytochemical investigation of C. zedoaria resulted in the isolation of 21 compounds. Isolated compounds include 18 sesquiterpenes and three labdane diterpenes. Various chromatographic techniques were used for the detection and isolation of the compounds. Extensive spectroscopic methods including NMR, IR, UV, GC-MS, LC-MS were used for the identification of the isolated compounds. Isolated compounds were subjected to cytotoxicity, anti-oxidant and neuroprotective assays. Curcumenol and dehydrocurdione showed the highest protection (100%) against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress in NG108-15 cells at the concentrations of 4 and 8 µM, respectively. In the oxygen radical anti-oxidant capacity assay, zerumbone epoxide showed the highest antioxidant activity with a Trolox equivalent (TE) of 35.41 µM per 100 µg of sample. In the MTT based cytotoxicity assay against four cancer cell lines (Ca 41 Ski, MCF-7, PC-3 and HT-29), curcumenone and curcumenol displayed strong anti-proliferative activity (IC50 8.3 and 9.3 µg/ml, respectively). A quantum chemical study was performed to investigate their relationship with cytotoxic activity and revealed that the dipole moment (µ), molecular volume (V), molecular area (A), polarizability (α) and hydrophobicity (log P) are the most important descriptors that influence the cytotoxic activity of the compounds under investigation. The two most active compounds; curcumenol and curcumenone were investigated for their binding to human serum albumin (HSA). The spectroflurometric analysis, in conjunction with molecular docking study suggested that both curcumenol and curcumenone could bind to binding sites I and II of HSA with intermediate affinity while site I was the preferred binding site for both molecules.

Speaker
Biography:

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Abstract:

The biosynthesized Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most effective antimicrobial agents that are used in the medicine and pharmaceutics due to their outstanding optical, magnetic, electrical, catalytic and properties. The detectable antimicrobial action of silver bionanoparticles on many microorganisms are reported.

 The main objective for undertaking the present study was to evaluate the extracellular synthesis of the AgNPs by natural thermophilic Bacillus Sps. AZ1 and AZ2 that were isolated from a hot spring (Tata Pani) in Kotli AJK. Afterwards the antimicrobial activity of the nanoparticle was evaluated against several human pathogenic organisms.

The biosynthesized AgNPs were confirmed visually by appearance of a dark brown color formation in the mixture as well as silver surface plasmon resonance band by using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The AgNPs were further characterized by SEM, EDX and TEM. The antimicrobial activity of the AgNPs was investigated using Salmonella typhiEscherichia coliStaphylococcus epidermis, and Staphylococcus aureus, by applying disk diffusion method.

 Identification of the strains AZ1 and AZ2 by the 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed 99% sequence homology between Bacillus megaterium and Geobacillus stearothermophilus. The obtained UV-Visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver ions, showed a peak at 435 nm which indicates a correspondence to the plasmon absorbance of the silver nanoparticles. The biosynthesized AgNPs were found to be in the size range of ~7-31 nm with spherical in shape.The antibacterial effect of the particles showed the highest inhibitory effect against the two strains; Ecoli, and Styphi, respectively.

The current study of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles offer a simple green synthesis process for the production of an extracellular nanoparticles which is environmental friendly. Biosynthesis of the AgNPs by a thermophilic bacillus Sps. from the hot spring (Tata Pani) in Kotli AJK with the highest similarity to Bacillusmegaterium and Geobacillus stearothermophilus are reported for the first time.