Hye-Jin Kim completed her B.S. in Biotechnology, Soonchun hyang University, South Korea and M.S. in Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, South Korea. Currently she is working in Pres. Researcher, KIOM (Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine)
Women who have experienced menopause are at grater risk for immune imbalance including hormone problem. Estrogens are involved inimmune response atleast of the humor alimmunity and androgens and progesterone. However, hormone replacement therapy has limitations of breast cancer incidence, Herbal medicines, which have less adverse effects, have received attention to compensate for the problems related to hormone replacement herapy. The purpose of this study is to demonstrated the immunological efficacy of T.tetragonioides(TT) using ovariectomized animal models.
Elena A. Vasileva is PhD student in the Laboratory of the Chemistry of Natural Quinonoid Compounds, G. B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Vladivostok, Russia. She has an experience in identification, isolation and structure elucidation of natural quinonoid compounds from plants, their cell cultures and sea urchins.
Secondary metabolites specific to sea urchins are known as spinochromes or polyhydroxynaphthoquinone (PHNQ) pigments. The most well-known sea urchin pigment echinochrome A exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities: antioxidant , antiallergic , antidiabetic  and cardioprotective . At the same time, properties of other PHNQ pigments are not so detailed studied.rnFor this investigation echinochrome A (1) and echinamines A (2) and B (3) were isolated from sand dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis ; spinochromes B (4) and E (5) were isolated from Mesocentrotus nudus .rn rnTable 1. Structures and cytotoxicity of compounds 1-5rnCompound R1 R2 R3 R4 IC*rn1 OH OH C2H5 OH 10rn2 OH NH2 C2H5 OH 25rn3 NH2 OH C2H5 OH 25rn4 OH OH H H >100rn5 OH OH OH OH >100rn*The concentration (µg/ml) that inhibits cleavage of the eggs 20 h after the beginning of cell division in the control. rnIn this study we determined the cytotoxic effects of PHNQs 1-5 on embryos of the sea urchin M. nudus. Sea urchin gamete is an attractive bioassay object since it is easy to obtain synchronous samples of dividing cells, and the cell cycle duration lasts only 1 hour. This model, rapidly and at low cost, provides information on the disruption of the cell proliferation. The cytotoxic action of steroid glycosides from starfish , synthetic naphthoquinones  and sesquiterpenoid quinones  have been successfully studied using sea urchin eggs. In the present work we have shown that quinones 1-5 exhibited slight activities on the first cell cleavage of eggs with IC values ranging between 50.0 and 100.0 µg/ml. The cytostatic action of 1, 2 and 3 was increased on the stage of eight blastomers.rn rnrnOn gastrula stage quinones 1, 2 and 3 displayed a moderate cytotoxic effect (MIC 10.0, 25.0 and 25.0 µg/ml, respectively) (Table 1). When the insemination was performed with eggs previously incubated with 1, 2 and 3 at the concentration of 2.0 µg/ml for 30 min, the fertilization was blocked completely, while the other compounds showed no significant inhibited effect. Thus, the cytotoxic activity of quinones